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“To encourage a more enlightened dialogue, a typology of citizen participation is offered …. The typology, which is designed to be provocative, is arranged in a ladder pattern with each rung corresponding to the extent of citizens’ power in determining the plan and/or program” (original article abstract). Source: Extracted from Sherry R. Arnstein (2019) A Ladder of Citizen Participation, Journal of the American Planning Association, 85:1, 24-34.

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A Ladder of Citizen Participation

A “provocative” model worth revisiting?



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